Posted by: Alison Cawood | August 4, 2009

Coriolis Force and Convergence Zones

Our second post of the day come to us from Pete Davison, a 5th year PhD student at Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Pete writes:

I thought that I would take a few minutes at the beginning of the cruise to explain why we are going to what might be described as “the middle of nowhere” to look for plastic debris in the ocean. Plastic comes from people, so why don’t we go somewhere near a big city like Los Angeles to look for it? Interestingly enough, the answer has to do with the weather and the rotation of the earth.

There is a high pressure weather system in the North Pacific Ocean. Air wants to move from high pressure towards low pressure, but the rotation of the earth forces the moving air to curl to the right. This force is called the Coriolis Force, and it causes the wind to blow in a clockwise circle around high pressure weather systems. Figure 1 below shows the wind patterns in the Pacific Ocean near California. The wind pushes water at the surface of the ocean. The Coriolis Force acts on the moving water too, which curls to the right of the wind. This causes water to converge towards the middle of the rotating winds. Logically enough, we call this a “convergence zone.” Sea level is actually a little bit higher in the middle of convergence zones like this. The force of gravity acting on the “extra” water is in balance with the Coriolis Force.

As the winds move new water into the middle of the convergence zone, the water that was there before sinks. The sinking water leaves floating material (like plastic) behind. The “new” water in the convergence zone brings new plastic with it, and this is why plastic accumulates there.  New plastic comes in and the old plastic stays behind. The whole process works in reverse around a low pressure weather system. The winds blow counter-clockwise around it, water is pushed away from the rotating winds, sea level is lower in the middle, and water diverges away from the middle of the rotating winds.

So we would expect to find a plastic patch in the convergence zones in the ocean, but not divergence zones. Our destination is roughly 35 degrees north and 140 degrees west, which can be seen to be very close to the middle of the rotating winds in Figure 1.

winds2_croppedFigure 1: North Pacific winds (from Tomczak, M. and Godfrey, J.S., 2002. “Regional Oceanography: an Introduction,” online version.). The red square (A) is a convergence zone, and the purple square (E) is a coastal upwelling divergence zone. Black arrows are winds, green arrows illustrate water movement.

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  1. You guys may want to link up the Kaisei Voyage Tracker application. A real-time live Google Earth plug in viewport to the journey as it progresses.

    There are two iphones providing video blog and gps location data posts up to this Google Earth viewport. See the news as it happens!

  2. thank you for explaining how this plastic got to this particular spot in the ocean. I am aware it is an issue, but mainstream media never explained HOW it got there. Your explanation was very simple and in terms I could understand. thank you!

  3. [...] lasting many months would be able to quantitatively estimate the true amount of plastic in the North Pacific Gyre, whereas our expedition intends to study what we believe to be one of the most impacted areas, so [...]

  4. [...] Thursday, Aug. 6, as SEAPLEX scientists continue towards the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, a large piece of plastic with crabs and fish larvae was retrieved from the water using a hand [...]

  5. [...] Regardless of what we thought previously, it has become clear that plastic debris does exist in the North Pacific Ocean Gyre. As of day five we began to see small plastic debris coming up in the manta net consistently. We [...]

    • It’s a pleasure to find such rationality in an anwesr. Welcome to the debate.

    • MT3qRz mmaxczgmawaz

  6. [...] (midwater) fish, which are the subjects of his thesis work.  This is Pete’s second post to the SEAPLEX [...]

  7. [...] tall ship Kaisei rendezvoused with the R/V New Horizon in the North Pacific Gyre during a picturesque sunset on Aug. 11, 2009.  Photo taken by Jim [...]

  8. [...] The R/V New Horizon sampling in the North Pacific Gyre. [...]

  9. [...] that it defies precise measurement. The gyre is not a current, but a lack of currents. Please see Pete’s explanation of convergence zones for more [...]

  10. [...] marine debris, as well as plankton, seaweed, and other sea life. (Find out more about these “convergence zones” in the ocean and a NOAA study of the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone, aka the “Great Pacific [...]

  11. [...] marine debris, as well as plankton, seaweed, and other sea life. (Find out more about these “convergence zones” in the ocean and a NOAA study of the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone, aka the “Great Pacific [...]

  12. [...] marine debris, as well as plankton, seaweed, and other sea life. (Find out more about these “convergence zones” in the ocean and a NOAA study of the North Pacific Subtropical Convergence Zone, aka the “Great Pacific [...]

  13. Для начала нужно отделить верхний слой волос толщиной около сантиметра (можно меньше — это зависит от густоты и толщины ваших волос). Этот слой начесывать не нужно. Дело в том, что начесанные волосы могут выглядеть спутанными, поэтому верхний слой волос служит для того, чтобы заигрывань прическу и заставить ее выглядеть более естественно.

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